Storie di Torino

L’ospedale celtico di Torino dedicato al ricovero e alla cura delle malattie sessuali

L’OSPEDALE CELTICO DI TORINO DEDICATO AL RICOVERO E ALLA CURA DELLE MALATTIE SESSUALI

Mai sentito parlare dell’Ospedale Celtico?
Dal nome si potrebbe pensare ad un ospedale destinato a popolazioni indoeuropee, invece si tratta di una struttura, o parte di essa, dedicata al ricovero e alla cura delle malattie sessuali.

Nel XVIII secolo le malattie sessuali come sifilide e gonorrea sono una piaga e si cerca di adottare ogni mezzo per impedirne il propagarsi. Cercando di arginare la malattia, nel 1776 viene istituito l’Ospedale Celtico per ricoverare le donne infette confinandole in sifilicomi. Nella zona del Martinetto, in una ex conceria viene aperto “l’unico speciale ospizio femminile’ che col passare del tempo diviene insufficiente e soprattutto non da la possibilità di suddividere le molte veneree per propria colpa dalle poche per non rea ragione.

Nello stesso periodo, il carcere femminile della Generala poco fuori Torino, sulla via per Stupinigi, viene dichiarato inadatto ad ospitare e soprattutto a redimere le giovani carcerate.
Considerato che nel carcere della Generala la maggior parte delle detenute sono prostitute e che quasi tutte prima o poi sono affette da sifilide, il trasferimento delle prostitute detenute verso l’Ospedale Celtico e viceversa è all’ordine del giorno.

Per ovviare agli inutili trasferimenti e disporre di una struttura più grande, nel 1836 Carlo Alberto di Savoia dispone il trasferimento di entrambe gli istituti nell’edificio pubblico denominato Ergastolo il Castro nei pressi dell’attuale via Ormea. I giovani oziosi e vagabondi ivi reclusi vengono così trasferiti a Saluzzo in attesa di sistemarli adeguatamente nell’ex carcere femminile nel 1845.

L’ospedale Celtico di Torino

L’ospedale Celtico di Torino è composto da dormitori comuni. Nei primi due piani dello stabile ci sono 85 cellette situate nel sottotetto per ospitare complessivamente circa 250 infette e alcune celle destinate all’isolamento che vengono utilizzate specialmente per le detenute che dal carcere della Generala sono trasferite al nosocomio.
In queste celle le sventurate devono passare un mese al fine di assoggettarne il carattere e farle riflettere sulla necessità di sottomettersi al proprio destino e non vengono ammesse ai dormitori senza aver prima dimostrato obbedienza, rassegnazione e buona condotta. In situazioni di particolare caparbietà, alle infette vengono ridotte le razioni di cibo e recluse in cellette oscure con paglia al posto del letto.

In un primo tempo le ospiti sono divise in due gruppi, le buone e le meno buone. Successivamente però diventa necessario aggiungere una nuova sezione portando a tre i gruppi, quello delle cattive o nuove giunte alloggiate in celle separate,  quello delle mediocri alloggiate nei dormitori del piano terreno e quello delle migliorate che, alloggiate al primo piano, possono vantare un cortile separato per le ore di passeggio.
La distinzione è rimarcata anche nella cappella dove le cattive seguono la messa nella tribuna superiore, le mediocri in quella inferiore e le migliorate in quella di mezzo.

… E poi ci sono le Ragazze di Civil condizione che per disgrazia incolpevole vengono ricoverate all’Ospedale Celtico, messaline educate abituate agli agi ed ai vizi che non possono essere di certo alloggiate con la plebe in quanto questo potrebbe nuocere al decoro della propria famiglia; per loro un’ala appartata vicino agli alloggi delle suore della Carità, che con alcune infermiere si occupano delle cure alle infette.
Onde evitare vergogne alle sventurate, queste ragazze possono ricevere visite separate, soprattutto per evitare che le famiglie debbano vedere le loro ragazze nello stesso parlatorio delle meretrici.

Le giornate delle ricoverate sono completate dal lavoro nel laboratorio di tessuti creato nel sotterraneo, filatura, tessitura, manifattura ed una lavanderia al fine di offrire alle sventurate, una volta lasciato l’ospedale, la possibilità di trovare un lavoro.

La nuova collocazione del sifilicomio in un’ala del carcere, oltre all’impiego di infermiere dedicate alla cura delle malattie veneree, in quanto questo tipo di malattia non si addice alle religiose, comporta una implementazione dei corpi di guardia poiché le meretrici inevitabilmente attirano a sé druidi e mezzani, uomini tratti dalla feccia della plebe, incantati in ogni maniera di sozzure, dediti ai ladronecci, pronti alle risse, schiamazzatori ed arrischiati a qualunque impresa.

In qualsiasi modo lo si voglia guardare più che un ospedale sembra una sorta di carcere ghettizzante, dove le donne sono ritenute colpevoli di essere infette e, come tali, meritevoli di finire in un reclusorio così duro. Nei primi anni del XX secolo con l’evolversi della medicina, le cure per la sifilide sono fortunatamente cambiate e l’ospedale celtico di Torino viene chiuso.

Oggi dell’edificio non è rimasto nulla, nel 1910 tutto il complesso viene destinato a carcere militare e successivamente negli anni ‘50 viene completamente demolito, al suo posto verrà edificato il complesso sportivo Ferruccio Parri di via Ormea 127.

Bibliografia:

San Salvario di Mrio Bianco e Massimo Scaglione | Annuncio Amazon

Calendario generale pe’ regii stati – Compilato d’ordine di S.M. per cura della Regia segreteria di Stato per gli Affari Interni – Anno XV – 1838 –  Stamperia Baglione e C. – Torino

Cenni intorno al correzionale delle prostitute ed all’ospizio celtico eretti con R. patenti del 28. maggio 1836 nell’edifizio dell’ergastolo.  – Vegezzi, Giovenale

IMMAGINI
Interno di una casa di tolleranza a Napoli nel 1945 – WIKIPEDIA
Giuseppe Maria Mitelli, la vita infelice della meretrice, 1690 Novembre dicembre

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